IMPORTANCIA DE LOS ESTRÓGENOS EN EL APARATO REPRODUCTOR DEL MACHO EN MAMÍFEROS / IMPORTANCE OF ESTROGENS IN THE MAMMALIAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

María Genoveva González-Morán

Resumen


El testículo es capaz de sintetizar y responder a los estrógenos a través de su desarrollo, la localización de la aromatasa, receptor a estrógeno alfa (REa) y receptor a estrógeno beta (RE-β) sugiere que la acción de los estrógenos es importante para la función testicular y de los conductos eferentes. Los estudios realizados en ratones transgénicos deficientes en receptores a estrógenos o de la enzima aromatasa han demostrado que los estrógenos tienen un papel crucial en el desarrollo y función normal de los testículos, del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-testículo, en la espermatogénesis y en la fertilidad del macho, destacando la importancia de la acción del estrógeno en el macho. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la distribución de ambos receptores a estrógenos (REa y REβ), y de la aromatasa en testículo, conductos eferentes y epidídimo en mamíferos en varias etapas de desarrollo, como también comparar las alteraciones de la función testicular y perfil endócrino en ratones transgénico deficientes en la aromatasa, receptor a estrógeno alfa (REa), receptor a estrógeno beta (REβ) y en ambos receptores (REaβ). Esta revisión también proporciona una visión general de la biosíntesis y acción de los estrógenos en el testículo, estructura de los receptores a estrógenos y la función de los estrógenos en el eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-testículo. Toda esta información muestra que los estrógenos son importantes en la regulación   fisiológica del aparato reproductor del macho.

 

ABSTRACT

The testis is able to synthesize and respond to estrogens throughout their development. The localization of aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) suggest that estrogen action is likely to be important for testicular and efferent ductules function. The studies of transgenic mice lacking estrogen receptors (ERs) or the aromatase enzyme demonstrated that the estrogen plays a crucial role in the development and normal function of the testis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis-axis, spermatogenesis and male fertility, highlight the importance of estrogen action in male. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the distribution of both estrogen receptors (ERa and ERβ), and aromatase in testis, efferent ductules and epididymis in mammalian in various stages of development, and also compare the alterations of testicular function and endocrine profile in transgenic mice deficient in aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha (ERa), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and in both estrogen receptors (ERaβ). This review will also provide an overview of the biosynthesis and action of estrogen in the testis, structure of estrogen receptors, and the role of estrogen in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis. All this information clearly show that estrogens play a physiological role in the regulation of male reproductive tract.



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